Table of Contents
- 1. What is apt command
- 2. Usage
- 3. The difference between apt upgrade and apt-get upgrade
1 What is apt command
This is a command that puts apt-get and apt-cache into one command. If you are tired of “apt-get search” or “apt-cache install”, you can use “apt search” and “apt install”. And apt has a progress bar.
Commands from apt-get / apt-cache are as below.
apt install <pkgname> Install package. apt remove <pkgname> Uninstall package. apt autoremove Uninstall packages installed for dependency. apt search <pkgname> Search package. apt show <pkgname> Show package information. apt update Update repository and get upgradeable packages. apt upgrade Upgrade packages. apt dist-upgrade Upgrade packages which will cause replace packages. apt -f install Fix broken package dependency. apt <command> –just-print Simulate command which enable checking packages.
Original commands of apt are as below.
apt list –upgradeable Show upgradeable packages. apt list –installed Show installed packages.
3 The difference between apt upgrade and apt-get upgrade
apt upgrade might install new packages. apt-get upgrade does not install new packages.
apt dist-upgrade and apt-dist-upgrade might install new packages and remove installed packages.
You should use apt upgrade.
3.1 apt-get upgrade does not upgrade kernel package
There are security update packages.
Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-21-generic x86_64) * Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com * Management: https://landscape.canonical.com * Support: packages can be updated.7 updates are security updates.Last login: Sat Jul 9 21:56:03 2016 from 192.168.11.4
Security update packages are kernel packages.
$ apt list –upgradableListing… Donelinux-generic/xenial-updates,xenial-security 184.108.40.206.30 amd64 [upgradable from: 220.127.116.11.22]linux-headers-generic/xenial-updates,xenial-security 18.104.22.168.30 amd64 [upgradable from: 22.214.171.124.22]linux-image-generic/xenial-updates,xenial-security 126.96.36.199.30 amd64 [upgradable from: 188.8.131.52.22]
apt-get upgrade does not upgrade these packages because kernel packages are considered to be install packages.
$ sudo apt-get upgrade -yReading package lists… DoneBuilding dependency treeReading state information… DoneCalculating upgrade… DoneThe following packages have been kept back: linux-generic linux-headers-generic linux-image-generic0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
apt upgrade will upgrade these packages.
$ sudo apt upgrade -yReading package lists… DoneBuilding dependency treeReading state information… DoneCalculating upgrade… DoneThe following NEW packages will be installed: linux-headers-4.4.0-28 linux-headers-4.4.0-28-generic linux-image-4.4.0-28-generic linux-image-extra-4.4.0-28-genericThe following packages will be upgraded: linux-generic linux-headers-generic linux-image-generic3 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.Need to get 68.3 MB of archives.After this operation, 295 MB of additional disk space will be used.Get:1 http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates/main amd64linux-image-4.4.0-28-generic amd64 4.4.0-28.47 [18.7 MB]
apt-get upgrade with –with-new-pkgs option will upgrade these packages.
$ sudo apt-get upgrade –with-new-pkgs # equal with sudo apt upgrade.